AAS Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (analytical chemistry)
ADAS Consultancy to land-based industries (UK) (
ADI Acceptable Daily Intake (toxicology)
AOC Assimilable Organic Carbon (water chemistry and biology)
AWWA American Water Works Association (
AMP Asset Management Plan
BAC Biological Activated Carbon (water treatment)
BAF Biological Aerated Filter (wastewater treatment)
BAP Biodiversity Action Plan
BATNEEC Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Costs
BBSRC The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) (
BFP Biofilm Formation Potential (water chemistry and biology)
BGS British Geological Survey (
BOD5 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (over a 5 day period)
BPEO Best Practicable Environmental Option
BPU Biocides and Pesticides Unit (part of HSE)
BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
BSRIA Building Services Research & Information Association (UK)
CABWI Certification and Assessment Board for the Water Industry (UK)
CAP Common Agricultural Policy (European Union)
CAPEX Capital Expenditure investment
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCDC Consultant in Communicable Disease Control
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
CCW Countryside Council for Wales (
CDSC Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (UK) (
CEFAS Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (UK)
CEH Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UK) (
CERC Centre for Environmental Research and Consultancy (Coventry University, UK)
CEST Centre for Exploitation of Science and Technology (UK)
CESWI Civil Engineering Specification for the Water Industry (UK)
CFC Chlorofluorocarbons
cfu Colony Forming Unit (Microbiology)
CHEC Commonwealth Human Ecology Council
CHIP The Classification (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations (UK)
CHP Combined Heat and Power
CIEH Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (UK) (
CIRIA Construction Industry Research and Information Association (UK) (
CIS Common Implementation Strategy (re EU Water Framework Directive)
CITES Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CIWEM Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (UK) (
CJD Creutzfeld-Jakob's Disease
CLRC Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (UK)
CMS Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand (water chemistry)
COGAP Code of Good Agricultural Practice
CORDIS Community Research and Development Information Service (of the European Community) (
CPA Crop Protection Association (
CPHM Consultant in Public Health Medicine
CPRE Council for the Protection of Rural England (
CSO Combined Sewer Overflow
CV Check Valve (water engineering)
DAF Dissolved Air Flotation (water and wastewater treatment)
DARD Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland) (
DBP Disinfection By-Product
DDT An insecticide with the chemical name 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane
Defra Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK) (
DETR Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (UK) to June 2001; replaced by Defra
DMA District Meter Area (leakage control)
DO Dissolved Oxygen (water chemistry)
DOC Dissolved Organic Carbon (water chemistry)
DoH Department of Health (UK)
DSI Draft Statutory Instrument (England & Wales)
DSR Draft (Northern Ireland) Statutory Rule
DSSI Draft Scottish Stutory Instrument
DTI Department of Trade and Industry (UK)
DTLR Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (UK) (
DVGW Deutscher Verein des Gas-und Wasserfaches e.V (Bonn, Germany)
DWI Drinking Water Inspectorate (UK) (
EA Environment Agency (UK) (
EBCT Empty Bed Contact Time (water treatment)
EC European Community or Commision
ECAP Eutrophication Control Action Plan
EHO Environmental Health Officer (UK)
EHS Environment and Heritage Service (
EMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
EMS Environmental Management System
EN English Nature (UK) (
EPA Environment Protection Agency (US)
EPSRC Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) (
ESA Environmentally Sensitive Area
ESRC Economic and Social Research Council (UK) (
EQO Environmental Quality Objective
EQS Environmental Quality Standard
ERA Environmental Risk Assessment
EU European Union
EUREAU European Union of National Associations of Water Suppliers and Waste Water Services
EWPCA European Water Pollution Control Association (
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization ( of the United Nations)
FWR Foundation for Water Research (UK) (
GAC Granular Activated Carbon (water treatment)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GIS Geographic Information System
GLV Guideline Value (water quality standards)
GMO Genetically Modified Organism
GWINTO The Gas and Water Industry National Training Organisation (UK) (
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HAP Habitat Action Plan
HMSO Her Majesty's Stationery Office (UK) (
HPC Heterotrophic Plate Count (water biology)
HSE Health and Safety Executive (UK)
ICE The Institution of Civil Engineers (UK) (
IFE Institute of Freshwater Ecology (UK) Since 2000 CEH Windermere (
IFR Institute for Food Research (UK)
IGER Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research (UK) (
IH Institute of Hydrology (UK) ( Since 2000 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Wallingford.
ILO International Labour Organisation
IPC Integrated Pollution Control
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (UK) Since 2000 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) (
IUVA International Ultra Violet Association (
IVEM Institute for Virology and Environmental Microbiology. Since 2000 CEH Oxford (
IWA International Water Association (
IWO Institution of Water Officers (UK) (
IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control
JNCC Joint Nature Conservation Committee (UK) (
LBAP Local Biodiversity Action Plan
LEAP Local Environment Agency Plan
LOAEL Lowest observed adverse effect level (toxicology)
MAC Mycobacterium avium complex or Maximum Admissible Concentration
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK) to June 2001; replaced by Defra
MAPPs Ministerially Approved Pesticide Products (UK)
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level (water quality standards)
MDPE Medium Density Polyethylene (pressure pipe material)
mgd Million gallons per day
MHRA Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK)
mld Megalitres per day
MNR Marine Nature Reserve
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MTBE Methyl-tert-butyl ether (water chemistry)
NAPL Non Aqueous phase liquid
NAS National Approval Scheme
NAW National Assembly for Wales
NERC Natural Environment Research Council (
NGO Non Government Organisation
NI Northern Ireland
NJUG National Joint Utilities Group (UK) (
NNR National Nature Reserve
NOAEL No observed adverse effect level (toxicology)
Nox Nitrogen Oxide (Air Quality)
NPL National Physical Laboratory (UK) (
NSA Nitrate Sensitive Area
NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (water chemistry)
NVZ Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (water resource protection)
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (
OFWAT Office of Water Services (UK) (
OPEX Operating Expenditure on a recurring annual basis
OSEC On-Site Electrolytic Chlorination (water treatment)
OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic
OST Office of Science and Technology (UK) (
PAC Powdered Activated Carbon (water treatment)
PAH Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (water chemistry)
PAN Pesticide Action Network (
PCV Prescribed Concentration or Value (water quality standards)
pe Population Equivalent (wastewater treatment)
PHLS Public Health Laboratory Service (UK) (
PPCPs Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products
ppm parts per million (equivalent to milligrams per litre for water)
PRV Pressure Reducing Valve (water distribution)
PSD Pesticides Safety Directorate (Executive Agency of Defra) (
psi pounds per square inch
PTE Potentially Toxic Element
PVC-U Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (pressure pipe material)
RBC Rotating Biological Contactor (wastewater treatment)
RBTS Reed Bed Treatment System (wastewater treatment)
REACH Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (EU Commission initiative)
RO Reverse Osmosis (water treatment)
RSC Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) (
RTC Real Time Control
SAC Special Areas of Conservation
SBR Sequencing Batch Reactor (wastewater treatment)
SBWWI Society of British Water and Wastewater Industries (UK) (
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (system)
SCI Society of Chemical Industry (UK) (
SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act (US legislation)
SAC Special Area of Conservation
SAP Species Action Plan
SEPA Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (
SI Statutory Instrument (England & Wales)
SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
SNH Scottish National Heritage (
SNIFFER Scottish and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research
SPA Special Protection Area
or (Northern Ireland) Statutory Rule
SR Service Reservoir (water distribution)
SRP Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (water chemistry)
SS Suspended Solids (wastewater composition)
SSI Scottish Statutory Instrument
SSSI Site of Special Scientific Interest
STW Sewage Treatment Works
SWIG Sensors for Water Interest Group (UK) (
TAD Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (wastewater sludge treatment)
tds Total dissolved solids (water chemistry) or tonne of dried solids (sewage sludge)
THM Trihalomethane (water chemistry)
TOC Total Organic Carbon (water chemistry)
TWL Top Water level (water reservoirs)
TZW Technologiezentrum Wasser (Karlsruhr, Germany)
UKTAG UK WFD Technical Advisory Group
UKWIR United Kingdom Water Industry Research Ltd (
UN United Nations
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UWRAA Urban Water Research Association of Australia
UWWTD Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (EC legislation)
VFA Volatile Fatty Acid (wastewater chemistry)
vlp virus like particle (water biology)
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
WaPUG Wastewater Planning Users Group (
WEDC Water Engineering and Development Centre (Loughborough University, UK)
WEF Water Environment Federation (USA) (
WERF Water Environment Research Foundation (USA) (
WFD Water Framework Directive
WHO World Health Organization
WHOPES World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme
WRAS Water Regulations Advisory Scheme (UK) (
WRC Water Research Commission (South Africa) (
WRc Water Research Centre plc (UK) (
Water Research Foundation (formerly AWWARF
WSAA Water Services Association of Australia (