PREPARING FOR A CHANGING CLIMATE
IN NORTHERN IRELAND
Background to research
The climate of Northern Ireland is already changing. Air
temperature is rising and the number of hot days is increasing; the
proportion of rainfall falling in summer is decreasing, while winters
are slightly wetter (EHS, 2004). These changes are expected
to accelerate over the coming century. Average temperature
may rise by 3°C or more; summer rainfall may fall by up to 50%
while winters may be 25% wetter (Hulme et al., 2002).
Furthermore, relative sea level may begin to rise.
Although there are ongoing efforts to mitigate climate change,
principally by reducing emissions, at least some climate change is now
inevitable. Adaptation to climate change – reducing
risks and realising opportunities – is therefore
required. It is vital that the community and key stakeholders
within it have a clear understanding of potential impacts and response
strategies. In particular public bodies, with their
policy-making, service provision and advisory roles, need to be at the
forefront in risk management and the delivery of sustainable
This report examines the ways in which Northern Ireland must prepare to
meet both the opportunities and threats presented by the impacts of a
changing climate. It focuses specifically on the impacts on,
and the need for adaptation by, the public sector in Northern Ireland.
Objectives of research
The five main objectives of this study were to:
- Provide an analysis (updating the 2002 SNIFFER scoping
report), based on the themes of Economic Infrastructure, Built
Environment, Natural Environment and Social Wellbeing, of climate
change impacts upon Northern Ireland, using the UK Climate Impacts
Programme 2002 (UKCIP02) scenarios and recent research in the field
relevant to Northern Ireland.
- Produce a risk analysis of identified impacts with
estimated likelihood of risk and resource implications.
- Produce an adaptation strategy for each impact, identifying
the public sector bodies responsible for delivery.
- Provide an analysis of the effect on public services
(building on the 2005 EHS guidance), specifically on the key outcomes
related to the Government’s three priority themes of Economic
Competitiveness, Equality and Community Cohesion and Better Public
- Produce a technical report of climate impacts for use by
policy experts. In addition, a separate non-technical summary
report has been produced.
Current climate, in particular extreme weather, can present
difficulties and the examples documented provide some indication of the
sensitivity to climate change. For this reason, it is
recommended that information on sensitivity to current weather is
collated by public sector organisations.
The UKCIP08 climate change scenarios, due in 2008, are not likely to
alter the strategic findings of this report. However,
significantly more detail will be provided, including probabilistic
projections, and this will be particularly useful for detailed
technical assessments for key sectors – an essential next
step to this report. It is recommended that a brief
assessment of the UKCIP08 scenarios is made on their publication,
reviewing any changes in projections and highlighting the enhanced data
available for stakeholders in Northern Ireland. It is also
recommended that outputs of Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
research are reviewed with respect to application in Northern Ireland.
There remain significant uncertainties associated with climate change
scenarios and impact assessment and this has been recognised through
this study as a significant barrier to planning for adaptation,
particularly in funding detailed studies and investments. A
large amount of research is currently underway regarding uncertainty
and approaches to quantification and it is recommended that detailed
assessments review the findings.
Rapid climate change, for example leading to a decline in the North
Atlantic Drift, is considered unlikely over the next 100
years. It is recommended that a watching brief is kept on
current research in this area and if necessary alternative
‘side-swipe’ scenarios are investigated to test the
resilience of Northern Ireland.
The development and assessment of socio-economic scenarios for Northern
Ireland is recommended for use alongside climate change
scenarios. These should build on the work being undertaken as
part of the UKCIP / Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Climate change impacts
Climate change impacts have been identified for each sector, with a
link made between the climate variable and the receptor. The
risk assessment has classified each of the impacts as a threat,
opportunity, lost opportunity or benefit. This method is a
valuable way to prioritise impacts and adaptive responses, and it is
recommended that a risk-based approach is adopted in more detailed
The main impacts of climate change have been considered in terms of the
principal sectoral activities in Northern Ireland and are summarised
biodiversity and habitats
Threats to the conservation, biodiversity and habitats of Northern
The opportunities that a changing climate could bring to the
conservation, biodiversity and habitats of Northern Ireland (e.g.
expansion of one species, wetter winters for some habitats) tend to be
accompanied by equivalent threats (e.g. loss of another species and
drier summers respectively).
- Distribution and species composition of habitats will
change in response to warmer winters.
- Increase in range of invasive non-native species may
threaten ecosystems, in response to warmer temperatures.
- Inter-tidal habitats, salt marshes and mudflats threatened
through flooding and erosion.
- Loss of coastal grazing marsh.
- Estuarine and river ecology threatened by tidal flooding.
- Warmer sea temperatures affecting phytoplankton communities
– the resulting decline in sand eel populations would
adversely affect a wide range of seabirds.
Threats to fisheries in and around Northern Ireland include the
Opportunities for Fisheries in and around Northern Ireland from a
changing climate are limited but warmer waters may provide benefits to
aquaculture including higher growth rates and new species.
- Increased frequency of flooding could lead to decreased
fish egg survival and washing away of juvenile salmon.
- Lower flows, lower water quality and increased temperatures
leading to fish kills.
- Increased temperatures can be lethal for some fish such as
- The melting of the polar ice pack has cooled the northern
Atlantic, reducing the extent of thermally attractive habitat for
- Angling affected by disturbance of breeding season of fish.
Threats to agriculture in Northern Ireland include:
Opportunities for agriculture in Northern Ireland include:
- Field drainage issues in wetter weather
- Potential impacts on crop yields
- Potential impacts on animal health
- Potential for growing new crops.
- Reduced cold weather problems including frost damage and a
decrease in time that animals need to be kept indoors.
Threats to forestry in Northern Ireland include the following:
Opportunities for forestry in Northern Ireland include:
- Hotter, drier summers will increase water uptake by
woodlands, restricting planting in areas with limited water
- Risk of increasing frequency of forest fires, dependent on
species and age structure of forest.
- Changing incidence of insect pest and disease outbreaks
e.g. increasing impact of the green spruce aphid on commercial
plantations of Sitka spruce.
- Extended summer droughts leading to widespread tree
- Higher potential productivity resulting from increased
warmth and higher CO2 levels.
- Changing climatic conditions will alter site suitability of
tree species that are currently planted and this may bring benefit in
- Increased commercial planting as part of a mitigation
- Expansion of woodland, including riparian woodland, may be
required to offset soil erosion and fluvial flooding, to provide shade
for fish and amenity for leisure activities.
Threats to water resources in Northern Ireland include the following:
Opportunities are limited but increasingly wet winters could provide an
opportunity for increased water storage. Business opportunities may
arise from increased demand for water efficient products.
- Lower flows may cause problems for users relating to
abstraction, ability to dilute effluent, aquatic ecology and recreation.
- Increased temperatures may cause problems with river and
reservoir water quality e.g. Dissolved Oxygen depletion, algal blooms,
physiological impact on fish.
- Storms may cause more Combined Sewer Overflows, damaging
- Increased rainfall causing erosion of soil and leaching of
agrochemical and agricultural wastes with problems for aquatic life,
abstractions and river users.
- Reduction in volume of sewer base flow may result in
blockages, leading to environmental health and flooding problems.
- Drier, hotter summers will increase demand for water,
affecting ability of abstractors to meet requirements.
- Lower summer runoff leading to reduced flushing of
estuaries and lakes with implications for shell fisheries, lake ecology
- Higher evaporation and lower inflows leading to reduction
in open water storage e.g. Lough Neagh, which may affect marginal
habitats and abstraction.
- Increase in pests and change in life cycle of aquatic and
- Summer storms, following dry periods, may lead to high
pollutant loads, damaging aquatic habitats.
and flood risk management
Threats to coastal and flood risk management in Northern Ireland
include the following:
No opportunities or benefits have been identified in relation to
coastal and flood risk management; however, there may be opportunities
in related areas e.g. new habitat creation projects.
- Increase in winter fluvial flooding, with impacts on:
settlements; farms and agricultural land; natural heritage; transport
infrastructure; the economy; and health.
- Increase in flooding, with impacts on: urban
infrastructure: buildings (including built heritage), utilities and
transport; businesses; the economy; and health.
- Increase in flooding and erosion at the coast, with impacts
on: coastal habitats; coastal settlements; coastal transport
infrastructure; and agricultural land.
construction and planning
Threats to buildings, construction and planning in Northern Ireland
include the following:
- Increase in winter flooding, with impacts on: settlements;
buildings and built heritage; transport infrastructure; water
infrastructure (supply and drainage); the economy; health and comfort;
urban green spaces; and construction.
- Increase in summer temperatures and drought, with impacts
on: buildings and settlements; infrastructure; green spaces and soil
moisture; construction; urban heat island; and waste management.
- Sea level rise leading to an increase in flooding and
erosion at the coast, with impacts on: settlements and buildings;
infrastructure (transport, water, communications, waste); and coastal
urban green spaces.
Business is sensitive to generic impacts such as flooding as well as
weather-related effects on product demand. Threats to
business in Northern Ireland include:
However, there will also be opportunities for businesses which can
adapt, for example:
- Wetter winters leading to damage of stock and premises,
supply chain problems, loss or reputation and insurance and investment
- Problems of exposure to outdoor workers in hotter summers.
- Decline or shift in demand for certain seasonal goods.
- Boost to sales of summer goods e.g. water retention
products, drought tolerant plants.
- Opportunity for business growth in outdoor activities and
- Increased demand for cooling products.
With regards to insurance, climate change is likely to affect customer
needs and the nature of cover, while altering the pattern of claims and
risk to which insurers are exposed. Threats to insurance in
Northern Ireland include:
No opportunities or benefits have been identified for the insurance
sector overall, although there will be opportunities for new products
and a reduction in certain claims (e.g. cold-weather related accidents).
- Increase in inland and potentially coastal flooding under
wetter winter and rise in sea level, leading to an increase in
flood-related property claims and business continuity claims.
- Increase in subsidence claims in hotter, drier summers.
Transport, and in particular roads, are already vulnerable to extreme
weather. Threats to transport in Northern Ireland include:
The main opportunity for the sector will be the likely increase in
demand for walking and cycling.
- Wetter winters and inland flooding, leading to:
infrastructure damage; problems for emergency services; delays to
users; and road safety issues.
- Wetter winters with increased flooding and scour, leading
to destabilisation of bridge / embankment foundations.
- Drier summers with drier soils and vegetation, leading to
increased risk of fire and increased risk of subsidence (on clay soils).
- Hotter summers with more extreme temperatures, leading to:
increased discomfort / exposure for travellers; economic cost of
infrastructure damage e.g. road rutting; and respiratory problems
associated with deterioration in air quality.
Tourism will be affected by and will benefit from climate changes both
in Northern Ireland and internationally. Specific risks for
Northern Ireland include:
Opportunities for tourism in Northern Ireland include:
- Wetter winters, which will affect outdoor tourism
- Coastal changes, which may cause flooding and degrade
- Dry summers, which may cause water shortages and be
detrimental to the natural environment.
- Drier, hotter summers, which will increase domestic tourism
- Warmer winters, allowing more year round tourism.
- More outdoor and water based activities due to hotter
Threats to the energy sector include:
Benefits under climate change include a reduction in winter heating
needs and winter fuel poverty.
- Heightened risk of subsidence and heave, leaving structures
vulnerable to damage or collapse.
- Greater demand for air conditioning in summer, altered
demand profile and operational variations by power suppliers.
Health implications for those without access to cool buildings.
- Reduced soil moisture content and heightened risk of
subsidence in vulnerable areas.
- Greater levels of damage to power supply infrastructure
(e.g. trees coming into contact with power lines).
Threats to health in Northern Ireland include:
Opportunities for health in Northern Ireland include:
- Coastal and riverine floods. Flooding is known to have
serious impacts on physical and mental health.
- Hotter summers with increased
“heatwave” events, leading to increase in: hospital
admissions; respiratory problems; heat-related mortality and morbidity;
and occupational heat stress.
- Hotter summers (and milder winters) leading to increased
bacterial growth, and activity of pests (flies, rodents).
- Longer summers leading to increased exposure to UV- and its
consequent health effects.
- Reduction in cold weather-related mortality and morbidity.
- Potential improvement in public health related to increased
opportunities for physical recreation.
Threats to sport and recreation in Northern Ireland include:
Opportunities for sport and recreation in Northern Ireland include:
- Wetter winters will affect outdoor sport and recreation
(adverse conditions for play).
- Dry weather may be detrimental to local habitats and
species which are vital for nature based recreation
- Reduced soil moisture will affect pitches and sports
- Increase in storm intensity and frequency may cause the
cancellation of outdoor activities.
- Damage to sporting and recreation facilities, for example
through flooding and drought.
- Drier, hotter summers will allow increased outdoor sport
- Increase in water based recreation and sports.
- Warmer winter weather will allow more year round outdoor
sport and recreation.
A number of potential cross-sector impacts have been
identified. These relate to:
on public services
- Increasing flood risk, with particular implications for the
Built Environment and Economic Infrastructure.
- A significant reduction in summer rainfall (and potential
reduction in annual rainfall), with consequences for the Natural
- Warmer summers (with more extreme hot days), causing a
mixture of threats and opportunities in different geographical settings.
- The potential for impacts on Biodiversity to affect
Fisheries and, therefore, Tourism and Recreation.
The implications of each climate change impact on public services in
Northern Ireland have been assessed and the relevant public bodies that
may be responsible for developing and implementing adaptation measures
identified. Some impacts directly affect public buildings,
infrastructure and land; others affect processes, services and plans
managed by public bodies. For most impacts, more than one
Public Service Area and public body responsible for adaptation was
identified, highlighting the need for a cross-sector, multi-agency
approach to adaptation. Planning (and therefore the
Planning Service) has a role in several sectors. The DOE
needs to continue its co-ordinating role, to include leadership on
raising awareness, monitoring and managing implementation.
Strong links will also be required with the Office of First Minister
and Deputy First Minister, the lead office on Sustainable Development.
There are a number of climate-sensitive policy outcomes related to
Government’s priorities and spending plans. In
general, climate change impacts will make it more difficult to meet the
outcomes of the Government’s priority themes, but constraints
can be minimised by building climate change adaptation into the action
plans for the delivery of these outcomes. This is recognised
in the Sustainable Development Strategy, which itself must consider the
impacts of climate change in the delivery of each target. By
considering climate change impacts now, policies can be
‘future proofed’ by planning adaptation.
In this respect sustainable development can be a useful tool for
promoting wider adaptation to climate change and this study will
contribute to the key targets identified for climate change adaptation
in the Strategy.
Adaptation to climate
The current approach to adaptation varies between sectors and between
organisations within sectors. Some organisations are moving
towards adaptation, at least in certain functions or with regards to
particular strategies, but many are delaying, adopting a
‘wait and see’ approach. This latter
approach often involves building adaptive capacity, through research
and networking. A particular outcome of the ‘wait
and see’ approach to climate change adaptation is that there
is generally a lack of sector-specific risk assessments for Northern
Ireland. As a result, awareness, willingness to change and
general sense of urgency to consider climate change adaptation within
sector-specific planning is lacking.
For some sectors, whilst research is being undertaken to assess the
potential impacts of a changing climate, this does not appear to be
carried through into policy and strategy development. For
example, despite the significant amount of climate change impact
research in relation to biodiversity, there does not appear to be any
clear co-ordination of strategic planning within and between the
various bodies responsible to address climate change risks and planning
for adaptation. This also means that the links to other
sectors, for example between biodiversity, fisheries, tourism and
recreation, are potentially missed.
The short-term pressures (resources, funding etc) on a number of
sectors, such as health for example, have meant that there is very
little political will to address climate change impacts. In
other sectors, such as tourism, the business planning process tends to
have a much shorter term focus and a more strategic or political
response to climate change adaptation will be required.
It is recommended that climate change adaptation is given a higher
priority across all sectors and within each of the public bodies
identified as being responsible for adaptation.
Potential adaptation strategies have been identified for each of the
impacts identified in the study. These are presented below.
biodiversity and habitats:
- Review of legislation to assess whether it will provide
sufficient protection for priority / designated habitats in a changing
climate and to identify whether revisions may be required.
- Review of monitoring to assess whether existing systems are
sufficiently sensitive to the effects of a changing climate and
identify where new systems may be required.
- Education and awareness: particularly focused on the human
impact on species and habitats and the scale of the likely impacts of a
- Further research
focussing particularly on:
- those species more valuable
to Northern Ireland for both biodiversity and economic reasons; and,
- potential advantages of new
target species in the marine environment.
- Review of the
potential impacts on ports or river structures.
- More detailed assessment of
risks and opportunities geographically specific to Northern Ireland
- Education and raising
awareness: specific to Northern Ireland context and needs to inform and
drive new practices.
- Ongoing review of
agricultural reform strategies, e.g. CAP reform, to ensure their
flexibility in relation to a changing climate.
- Review of how woodlands may
help with adaptation across sectors – for example planting in
flood plains can reduce downstream flood flows.
- Further research and
identification of a strategy for exploiting potential opportunities
provided by climate change (including mitigation) for the Northern
Ireland forestry sector.
- Development of the
Ecological Site Classification decision support system for aiding
species selection under climate change scenarios to Northern Ireland to
help in long term planning.
- Development of Best Practice
guidelines to ensure that forestry and woodland management in Northern
Ireland is resilient to climate change. Gaps in current research should
be addressed. Forestry sector should use risk assessments to formulate
an adaptation strategy.
- More detailed modelling of
impacts on Northern Ireland water resources, addressing long-term
impacts on supplies, environment and water quality.
- Further development of
adaptive actions already identified, many of which include wider
environmental benefits. Some adaptation may be realised through
compliance with the Water Framework and Nitrates Directives.
- Ensure risks and adaptation
are adequately represented within long term planning for water
resources e.g. in schemes such as reservoirs. Adaptation costs can be
minimised by maintaining and improving current infrastructure.
- Changes to the planning
processes and regulatory framework for the water sector in Northern
Ireland will provide opportunities for the development of adaptive
and flood risk management:
construction and planning:
- More specific modelling of
the impacts on flood risk in Northern Ireland.
- Strategic assessment of
flood and erosion risks, and specific risk assessments for individual
sites and infrastructure projects.
- Evaluation of options such
as upstream source control, flood storage and flood-protection, as well
as non-structural methods such as flood warning and insurance.
- Specific focus on options
for managing coastal change, including construction of sea defences and
- Cross-sector implications:
overlaps with biodiversity provide both opportunities and threats that
will need further specific risk assessment and adaptive planning.
- Strategic actions: research,
raising awareness, consideration of longer-term plans and seeking
changes to planning policy.
- Location and urban design
actions: adaptation of infrastructure at risk, reduction of flood risk,
use of green spaces and sustainable urban drainage systems.
- Building design: Reducing
heat gain within buildings, use of green roofs, opportunities for
energy and water-efficient new-build houses.
- Historic buildings: Improved
management and maintenance of current buildings, development of
strategies to adapt to changing climatic conditions.
- Waste management: assess
potential impacts, sites at risk and options for effective planning.
- Review regulatory framework
and incentives provided for adaptive planning within Northern Ireland.
- Increase awareness of
climate change threats and opportunities.
- Address the lack of priority
given to climate change due to short term business and economic
- Develop specific tools,
guidance and climate data for risk assessments that match business
needs, which vary across the sector.
- Embed climate change
adaptation into existing risk management and decision support
- Although the insurance
industry is one of the most proactive sectors for climate change
research, little research has examined Northern Ireland
specifically. Insurers are expert at dealing with risk and
insurance could be a valuable tool in managing future weather-related
- As insurers rely on sharing
the burden of risk, insurance should be employed alongside other
- Review of current standards
for infrastructure such as drainage, earthworks, roads, railways,
bridges, sea defences and tunnels and implications of a changing
- New highway infrastructure
should include additional capacity to account for climate change,
including paying particular attention to storm drainage, culvert sizing
and flow attenuation.
- Existing highway
infrastructure should be assessed to determine if alterations are
- Emergency planning should
take account changing climatic extremes.
- Although there are limited
railways in Northern Ireland, links should be made with research
programmes elsewhere in the UK with regards to adaptation measures such
as coastal defences, flood risk and embankment stability.
- Detailed sector-specific
research into the impact of a changing climate on tourism in Northern
Ireland. This should examine the opportunities for increased tourism
that may be provided and the strategies and policies required to
develop opportunities and adapt to impacts.
- Education: for tourists and
operators of their impacts on climate to ensure there are few barriers
to the implementation of new adaptation measures and new opportunities
- Improve the resilience of
the electricity transmission network to weather.
- Undertake a risk assessment
of power stations in areas that may be vulnerable to flooding.
- Ensure that the growing gas
infrastructure is climate-proofed.
- Consider adaptation in the
planning of new energy infrastructure, particularly renewables
infrastructure, with which there is little experience of weather
- Undertake research into
demand and consumption of energy with respect to climate change and
- Sector specific policy
review looking at the impacts of a changing climate on health and
wellbeing in Northern Ireland and their relation to competing
considerations in the Northern Ireland health sector.
- Consideration given to
Northern Ireland being included within the UK Heat wave Plan.
- Infectious disease
surveillance should be strengthened.
- Registries of extreme events
and their impact on the public health should be set up for monitoring
It is recommended that the sector-specific adaptation strategies are
now taken forward and the risk-based assessment of impacts has provided
an indicative prioritisation of the timetable for adaptation.
Immediate priority should be given to the most significant impacts; for
major threats and opportunity adaptive actions should be undertaken, or
at least planned, in the short-term. Given the lag in the
climate system, we are already committed to changes projected to about
the year 2040 and therefore adaptive actions to initial impacts can be
planned and executed with some certainty. Adaptive actions
may require detailed sector-specific risk assessments, option appraisal
and selection, and development of associated indicators and targets to
- Sport and recreation tend to
be reactive and strongly dominated by social factors, which make it
difficult to effectively plan for climate change. Although
generic impacts can be identified, there is a need for further basic
research incorporating climate change and socio-economic scenarios,
from which future policies can be developed.
- There are significant
opportunities for this and related sectors such as health; these will
need to be realised through a coordinated approach involving education,
transport, health and sector-specific agencies.
For many adaptation cases there are opportunities for no or low-regret
solutions, particularly in relation to improving the ability to cope
with current weather-related impacts. There are also win-win
opportunities to adapt to several impacts with one action. It
will be necessary to re-evaluate impacts where the risk has been
classified as unknown, especially where this may lead to a major
threat. This will involve review of ongoing research and
development of a better understanding of the sensitivity of receptors.
A number of general themes for climate change adaptation are apparent
from across the sector- and impact-specific adaptation
strategies. These can be grouped under the two main elements
of the UK’s Adaptation Policy Framework:
- Increase training and
- Contribute to the
development and use of climate change scenarios for Northern Ireland,
to include comparison of EPA and UKCIP
- Development of
socio-economic scenarios for Northern Ireland for use alongside climate
change scenarios in detailed impact
- Review of
legislation, regulations, policies and procedures with respect to
protection from climate change and provision of incentives for
- Contingency /
monitoring and records of extreme weather
- Incorporate climate
change into existing models.
- Include climate impacts and adaptation in strategies
plans, with scheme specific risk
- Consideration of
cross-sector implications of responses: threats and
- Increase resilience
e.g. diversification; buffer zones.
- Accept losses where feasible e.g. coastal
- Avoid losses e.g.
by altering building materials.
- Embrace change e.g. new species and maximising
opportunities provided by mitigation (e.g. woodland / forestry
- Planning for risks
and opportunities in new infrastructure projects (water, sewerage,
flood risk, transport, construction etc).
- Changes to management and maintenance practices to
accommodate changes in climate.
- In building design / construction: managing heat
energy, water and environmental
- Enhanced health
surveillance and heat-wave response.
Constraints to adaptation include uncertainty about future climate
conditions and a lack of funding and human resources. The
future is inherently uncertain and decision-making will need to
incorporate uncertainty in climate change and socio-economic scenarios,
drawing on appropriate techniques and new research.
Flexibility and the implementation of no- and low-regret solutions will
help avoid unnecessary adaptation. This will be particularly
the case in terms of those sectors responsible for the management and
development of infrastructure with typically long asset lives and high
levels of investment; but it is equally appropriate for the environment
/ biodiversity sectors. A rise in the profile of climate
change adaptation will need to be accompanied by appropriate resources
to undertake detailed impact assessments and implement
adaptation. In the short-term this may require funding for
capacity building, while in the medium to long term funding may be
required to deliver adaptive actions.
Next steps: a partnership
This study identifies the main issues that public services in Northern
Ireland will need to consider in terms of the impacts and needs for
adaptation to a changing climate. Option appraisal and
selection, and development of associated indicators and targets should
now be undertaken. This is likely to require more detailed
quantitative assessment of impacts at the sector and scheme level,
which may be guided by the risk assessments completed in this
study. However, as the impacts and responses taken for one
sector or organisation could significantly affect others, it is
recommended that a Northern Ireland climate change partnership is
established to facilitate and coordinate stakeholder engagement and
consideration of issues within and between sectors. This
should provide the foundation for ensuring that Northern Ireland is
adequately prepared for the impacts of climate change.
climate change, impacts, risk, adaptation, public service,
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