Report No FR0344
INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE STRATEGIES:
CASE STUDIES IN SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
To provide the members of the FWR with information on the factors which influence whether industrial effluents are treated on site or discharged to sewer in selected European countries.
Industrial discharges to sewers can have an effect on the sewerage system and the sewage treatment plant operation and can also influence the quality of the sewage sludge and effluent produced. With the increasing pressure to improve sewage effluent quality and the quality of sewage sludge to maintain existing sludge outlets, it is important to consider the benefits and possible disbenefits of treating industrial effluents on site prior to discharge to sewer.
It is difficult to make any generalised conclusions as local factors appear particularly important when individual companies determine their effluent disposal strategies.
In the case studies examined, however, prime considerations were usually legislative, regulatory or operational requirements rather than cost.
There is a difference in policy for the disposal of toxic effluent in Germany and the Netherlands, with discharge to sewer after treatment being the usual disposal route in Germany and direct discharge after on-site treatment being encouraged in the Net herlands.
A number of different subsidy schemes were in evidence to encourage the introduction or development of treatment facilities. Companies which had adopted on-site treatment had usually also implemented process controls to reduce treatment costs and often benefited from the production of marketable by-products.
V RESUME OF CONTENTS
Policies for controlling industrial discharges to sewers are described. Case studies are used to illustrate the factors which affect decisions by industrial companies, sewage treatment operation and control/funding agencies concerning the optimum solution in selected situations.
Copies of the report are available from FWR, price £15.00, less 20% to FWR Members.