AffordableWater Supply & Sewerage for small communities

ReportNo WSAA 125





The purpose ofthe handbook is to reach a wide audience including representatives and membersof small communities to communicate how lower cost options can meet thecommunity’s needs and means for water supply and sewerage services. Suchoptions incorporate appropriate reductions to levels of service and designstandards which can reduce the costs by up to 50% of the cost of systemsdesigned to conventional standards.


The handbookfocuses on the specific requirements of affordable water supply and seweragesystems to meet the needs of small communities and supplements current manualsand procedures.  Simple step by stepmethods allow selection of appropriate levels of service and design standardsto reduce costs and provide a service where it may not otherwise be possible todo.

The handbookdeals with:

·        Populationand development Projections

·        WaterSupply Investigation using four main options:

1.       Reticulated Potable Supply

2.       Constant flow Reticulated Supply

3.       Non-Potable Reticulated Supply withpotable supply from individual rainwater tanks

4.       Dual Reticulated Supply with separatepotable and non-potable reticulation

·        SewerageInvestigation of lower cost options including:

-         ModifiedConventional Sewerage with lift pumping

-         VacuumSewerage

-         GrinderPumps

-         CommonEffluent Drainage

-         VariableGrade Sewerage

-         Septic TankEffluent Pumping

-         Modifieddrainage

-         Septictanks with subsurface irrigation


The selectionand implementation of the preferred system is discussed. Guidelines areprovided on operation, maintenance and management of the systems and for keycomponents.

Copiesof the Report are available from WSAA, price $A50. Orders may be placed throughthe Bookshop at or by email to