WaterTreatment Plants for Small Communities
ReportNo WSAA 98
Thisreport contains the results of a project “Water Treatment for SmallCommunities”, which commenced in 1991 under the auspices of the Urban WaterResearch Association of Australia.
Thereport contains a literature review, water quality considerations and issues,an explanation of a broad range of water treatment processes, a survey of waterauthorities in Australia, a survey of proprietary water treatment equipmentsuppliers and the results of pilot plant testing of a number of proprietaryplants.
Theprincipal findings of the report are summarised below:
· Common problems faced by small communities are isolation, limitedfinancial resources, lack of economies of scale, lack of qualified personnelfor design, operation & maintenance and reluctance to commit funds tountried technology.
· Some of the desirable requirements of a small community water treatmentplant are low capital, operating and maintenance costs, simple operation andmaintenance, ability to be left unattended for long periods, manageableresiduals, reliability, no chemical dosing (if possible), and spare parts andrepair capabilities readily available.
· Proprietary package water treatment plants are often used in smallcommunities. Traditional package plants generally use modified conventionalwater treatment processes. Increasingly package plants make use of more recenttechnology such as microfiltration.
· The type of water treatment plants serving small communities inAustralia are varied. The range covers conventional treatment, directfiltration, traditional package plants with tube settlers, continuous contactsand filters to microfiltration and desalination.
· A large number of proprietary treatment processes and package plantsare readily available in Australia of either local design and manufacture tooverseas developed equipment sold under licence.
· Pilot plant trials have shown that proprietary plants generally performwell when they are treating waters of a raw water quality that is within theircapabilities to treat. Selection of proprietary equipment should be sitespecific and ideally pilot trials undertaken.
Copiesof the Report are available from WSAA, price $A100. Orders may be placedthrough the Bookshop at www.wsaa.asn.auor by email to firstname.lastname@example.org.